2015-2-6 11:50










With over 300,000 plants species on Earth, there's no doubt that they have highly developed senses to stay alive and thrive. But while some of their features may be compared to taste, sight, touch and smell in humans, have you ever wondered-can plants think?

On land, the cumulative mass of plants is 1000 times higher than that of animals. But these plants are immobile and can't move around in their environment which is seemingly a pretty big evolutionary disadvantage. This has forced plants to adapt in amazing ways that often go unnoticed by the naked eye.

Smell something funny? Plants do too and they react to these chemicals in the air. For example, when fruits start to ripen, they release a chemical called ethylene. And when neighboring fruits sense this pheromone, they ripen faster, so that all fruits mature at the same time. Plants also give off scents which attract insects to spread their pollen.
味道怪味了?植物也能聞并會對空氣中的化學物質做出反應。比如 ,水果在成熟時會釋放出一種叫乙烯的物質。當周圍植物感測到這種信息素時,它們會更快成熟,而所有的水果就能同時成熟了。植物也會釋放出吸引昆蟲傳粉的氣味。

In particular, the amazing carrion flowers grow tiny hairs, feel warm and smell like rotting flesh in an attempt to mimic a dead corpse. This is to attract flies and beetles as pollinators. On the other hand, when a plant is attacked by an insect, animal or pathogen, it knows. When acacia trees are grazed by animals, they quickly react by producing chemicals called tannins, which make their leaves unappetizing and tough to digest.
特別地大王花會長出腐肉味的絨毛借此模仿死尸。這是為了吸引傳粉者 蒼蠅和甲蟲。另一方面,當植物受到昆蟲、植物或病菌的侵害時它也知道。當金合歡樹被動物盯上時,它也會立即產生單寧酸,這讓它們的葉子更難吃、難以消化。

Some even produce enough toxins to kill the animal. Perhaps more impressive are some corn and cotton plants which when eaten by caterpillars release chemicals in the air that attract parasitic wasps who fly in and ultimately kill the insects.

On some level, they communicate with the wasps. Crazy as it seems, even sound recordings of caterpillars chewing leaves, trigger this response. Without any from of touch, the plants react, as if they can hear. On a large scale, plants also work together. A web of underground fungi can connect tree roots in forests, allowing them to exchange nutrients and information.

Using radioactive isotopes, scientists discovered that trees share water and nutrients with others in need. Large trees nourish smaller shaded ones until they are tall enough to reach sunlight. And trees that stay green all year round share nutrients with trees that lose their leaves in winter, helping them through the season. Which is then repaid in the summer months, like a transactional exchange. Some scientists refer to this as the "wood-wide web".
科學家通過同位素觀測發現,樹木會與有需求者分享水和養料。大樹會與受遮蔽的小樹分享養分,直到它們能受到日照。四季常青的樹木會與冬季落葉的樹木分享養分,幫助它們過冬。在夏天它們得到償還的養分 像是生物交換。一些科學家稱此為“樹聯網“。

Perhaps the most shocking fact is that some plants seem to have memory. Mimosa pudica plants are those leafy plants that close up when touched. This reflex is meant to scare away insects that land on them. I n an experiment on these reflexes, scientists notice that when dropped from 15cm.they would close when they hit the ground. Not so surprising. But after repeating the drop 4 or 5 times, some of the plants stopped closing as though they had realized the stimulus wasn't harmful. If they were shaken instead, they would close, but any time they were dropped from this same height, they stayed open. This effect lasted for weeks-the plants had memories.

Of course, plants don't have brains or other cells and organs that we deem necessary for intelligence. Brains and neurons are irreplaceable, but plants are immobile and often attacked, so they must be able to survive after part of them is eaten or destroyed. A brain just wouldn't work. But if you measure intelligence or thought as the ability to solve problems, interact with an environment and even work in groups, then plants are incredibly smart.
當然,植物沒有大腦或者其他“智力“不可或缺的器官或細胞。大腦和神經無可替代,但植物無法移動,也常受攻擊,在部分被吃掉或毀壞后 它們還得能活下去。大腦沒什么用。但如果你將智力或思維視作解決問題的能力,與周圍環境的交互,甚至團隊合作力,那么植物相當聰明。

It's something to think about next time you're munching down on a piece of broccoli!
下次嚼西蘭花時 好好想想這點吧!

宁夏十一选五开奖走势 北京赛车实战经验教学 江苏十一选五怎么看 福建快三app 在线杠杆配资推荐必选卓信宝 吉林快三计划 河北20选5开奖软件 股票配资平台招商整套流程 湖北十一选五遗漏数据 上海十一选五怎么算中奖 幸运飞艇手机APP 河南快三推荐预测 开户去哪个证券公司好 广西快3遗漏值 紫金矿业股票行情 四川快乐十二任五遗漏 四川快乐12直选三遗漏 北京赛车实战经验教学 江苏十一选五怎么看 福建快三app 在线杠杆配资推荐必选卓信宝 吉林快三计划 河北20选5开奖软件 股票配资平台招商整套流程 湖北十一选五遗漏数据 上海十一选五怎么算中奖 幸运飞艇手机APP 河南快三推荐预测 开户去哪个证券公司好 广西快3遗漏值 紫金矿业股票行情 四川快乐十二任五遗漏 四川快乐12直选三遗漏